INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
During Copper Stone Age, an ancient civilization existed in India, which was the beginning of Indian civilization known as Indus Valley Civilization.
- In 1921 ancient city of Harappa in Sindhi means Buried City was discovered.
- The site of Harappa was located on the bank of river Ravi.
- The main cities of Indus Valley Civilization were Mohenjo-Daro, Chanhudaro, Kalibangan, and Lothal.
- Dockyard of Indus Valley Civilization was found in Lothal
- The Harappan site located near the Iranian border is Suktagendor.
- Following characteristics distinguished the Harappan Civilization from other contemporary civilization of the world is Town Planning, Drainage System, and sanitation.
- The people of Indus Valley Civilization usually built their houses of Pucca bricks.
- The Valley people traded with the Mesopotamian.
- The Indus Valley Civilization was non-Aryan because it was urban.
- Mohenjodaro, Harappa, Ropar, and kalibangan were the important places of Indus Valley Civilization.
- Rock cut architecture in Harappan culture context has been found in Dholavira.
- Cotton for Textile was first cultivated in India.
- The Indus Valley Civilization was an advanced urban civilization.
- Iron was not known to the people of Indus Valley Civilization.
- It is difficult to say to which race the people of Indus Valley Civilization belonged.
- The local name of Mohenjodaro: Mound of the dead.
- Indus Valley Civilization specialized in town planning.
- The archeological finds from Alamgirpur in Ghaziabad district reflected Harappan Civilization.
THE GREAT BATH
- It was found in 1926 during archaeological excavation.
- It was built of kiln-fired bricks and sealed with a lining of bitumen.
- There were steps on both sides, one from the north and other from the south.1 meter wide and 40 cm high mound is present on the end of the stairs
- It measures 11.88*7.01 meters and has a maximum depth of 2.43 m
- Two large doors lead into the complex from the south and other access from the north and east.
- It was fed by water from a well that may have supplied some of the water needed to fill the tank and dirty water was emptied by huge drain.
- Rainwater may also have been collected, but no Inlet drains have been found.
- There was room on all the sides of the pool for changing clothes.
BUILDINGS AND TOWN PLANNING
- Mohenjodaro has a planned layout and buildings arranged on the grid system.
- In buildings mostly used pucca bricks, but some incorporated sun-dried, mud- bricks and wooden superstructures.
- The main street ran from north to south and east to west intersecting one another at right angles.
- There were some smaller houses which had two rooms and there were also some multi-storied houses.
- The staircases of the big buildings were solid, the roofs were flat and were made of wood.
- There were dustbins in front of the houses.
- Doors the houses were on the side walls, one could enter a house by the door facing the side lanes of the house, the doors were made of wood.
- The northern part of the town was narrow and elevated, constructed for security and eastern side was broad and lowered.
- Houses were built on each side of the street systematic order.
- An administrative committee was there to administer the city.
- Every household had horizontal and vertical drains connected to the street drain which were fully covered.
- There were some holes for regular intervals for cleaning.
SITE RIVER EXCAVATOR
|Harappa||Ravi||Daya Ram Sahni|
|Mohenjodaro||Indus||Rakhal Das Bannerji|
|Chanhodaro||Indus||Mackay, N.G. Mazumder|
|Kalibanga||Ghaggar||Amalanand Ghosh, B.V. Lal & B.K. Thapar|
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